The Role of Training in the Development of Adaptive Mechanisms in Freedivers

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Andrzej Ostrowski, Marek Strzala, Arkadiusz Stanula, Miroslaw Juszkiewicz, Wanda Pilch, Adam Maszczyk

Freediving is a sport in which athletes aim to achieve the longest or the deepest breath-hold dive. Divers are at risk of gradually increasing hypoxia and hypercapnia due to a long time spent underwater and additionally of increasing hyperoxia while depth diving. Exceeding the limits of hypoxia endurance leads to loss of consciousness or even to death whithout immediate first aid. Often enhanced world records indicate the ability to shape specific to the discipline adaptive mechanisms of cardio-pulmonary system which are individually conditioned. During stay underwater heartbeats decelerating called bradycardia, increase in blood pressure, peripheral blood vessels narrowing and blood centralization in freediver’s organism. These mechanisms enhance blood oxygen management as well as transporting it first of all to essential for survival organs, i.e. brain and heart. These mechanisms are supported by spleen and adrenal glands hormonal reactions.
Key words
freediving, breath-hold, training, adaptive mechanisms

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