Components of Physical Work Capacity, Somatic Variables and Technique in Relation to 100 and 400m Time Trials in Young Swimmers

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Strzala M. Tyka A., Zychowska M, Woznicki P.

The most important components determining sport results of competitive swimmers include somatic, physiological and psychological properties. The main objective of this work was to identify the main factors determining sport results of elite polish freestyle swimmers at 100 and 400 meters. The research material included 16 male swimmers between the age of 15-17 (16,3 ± 0,73 years) with a 4-5° of biological development according to Tanner (1963) and training experience of 8-9 years. All athletes were subjected to 3 laboratory tests. A aerobic capacity test with graded intensity performed until volitional exhaustion and two anaerobic 60s tests conducted with lower (CE) and upper (SE) limbs. Swimming trials were also conducted in a 25m pool at 100 and 400m. On the basis of the conducted research it can be concluded that the results in the 100m freestyle are primarily determined by anaerobic capacity of upper and lower limbs as well as body height and lean body mass. At 400m the influence of somatic features is smaller. Once again the results are mainly affected by anaerobic capacity as well as stride rate.
Key words
swimming, work capacity, somatic variables

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